Do Ask Do Tell Reviews of Films related to natural disasters
These films are important because they document disasters that could have tremendous future affects on our way of life if they could not be met.
History Channel Films:
East Coast Tsunami (2006, HC) explores the possibility that a volcanic eruption (the Cumbre Vieja) in the Canary Islands (La Palma, off the coast of Africa) could cause a 200 cubic mile landside that generates a 150-300 foot tsunami that reaches all the way to the East Coast from Florida to Newfoundland. The tidal waves would come in about 20 successive waves, and the “storm surges” would inundate all areas up to close to 300 feet above sea level (essentially the Fall Line of the Piedmont Plateau), destroying much of New York and Boston as well as obviously Florida. The economic and legal system is not prepared for such a catastrophe, as enormous sacrifices would have to be made by all Americans. (Remember the issue of taking in “refugees” into private homes after Katrina?) One wonders (in comparison to many other possible catastrophes) what science could do to prevent such destruction. Can mankind’s rationality win out, or is this idea a justification for moral values that force people to honor the norms of familial socialization? There was a smaller tsunami from the “Grand Banks” in Newfoundland in 1929. The Ritter Island tsunami in 1888 is analyzed. It’s easy to imagine a film screenplay (probably for Sunday night network TV) where the Azore’s eruption and landslide occurs and the US East Coast has ten hours warning to evacuate (including the coastal cities like New York) before a several-hundred-foot tsunami overruns the entire East Coast all the way to the Appalachians (including all of Florida, which never gets much above 300 feet above sea level – light green in the 1950 World Book.)
West Coast Tsunami (2006, HC) is the companion film, about the grim outcomes along the West Coast if the subduction zone off the Pacific Northwest Coast fails with a massive earthquake. There is proof of earlier tsunamis from Hawaii, and going across the Pacific to Japan, and Krakatoa—as well as the catastrophe in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004.
Mega Tsunami (2008? HC) examines the tsunami that likely occurred after a Mount Etna eruption 8000 years ago, destroying settlements as far away as modern day Israel (Atlit Yam near modern Haifa). The threat of Cumbre Vieja in the Canary Islands is explored. Blogger.
“Mega-Disasters: The San Francisco Earthquake” which talked a lot more about the engineering issues, including the “soft stories” issue for many older residential buildings. The film also included a simulation of what could happen with a 7.9 earthquake at the same place today. The Golden Gate Bridge loses a span, and the eastern Bay Bridge (up to Treasure Island) collapses. The City Hall and Asian Art museum are on floaters. I could wind up there myself some day, depending on what course my life takes. PBS followed up with a one-hour
"Mega Disasters: Gamma Ray Burst" can occur every few hundred million years from colliding neutron stars (which may occur in the Milky Way) or maybe supernovae or hypernovae. Blogger review.
"Mega Disasters: Mega Freeze: Climate Change" (2006) is the latest mega-disaster, and this one-hour documentary traces the Dryus climate change around 12000 years ago when the temperature dropped 18 degrees over a decade, and then the Little Ice Age, with its political fallout leading to revolutions. Europe, along with the northeastern North American Coast, is kept relatively mild in winter by the thermohaline circulation incorporating the Gulf Stream, a deep ocean current flow that could be disrupted by fresh water from glacier melting with global warming. Ironically, the sudden effect, in a decade, could be catastrophic climate change: Siberian winters in both New York and London, drought in the midwest, and overwhelming mudslides on the West Coast. Snow could start in October, as it does in Moscow now, and Noreasters could be six foot blizzards. Another scenario could have a sudden winter super storm start in the polar regions, as in "The Day After Tomorrow" (below). Blogger.
Earthquake in the Heartland (2006, History Channel) is a one hour documentary that simulates what would happen in the lower Midwest (Memphis and St. Louis) is a New Madrid, MO style earthquake (there were three in 1811-1812) recurred, and geology indicates that another series of 8.0 quakes in the “dimple” could occur in about 100 years. Over 10 million could be made homeless. Compare to the NBC “10.5” TV movie series. http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/prepare/factsheets/NewMadrid/ ;
American Vesuvius (2005, History Channel) presents archeologist Charles Pellegrino from New York City, as he compares the physics of the pyroclastic outflow cloud from Mt. Vesuvius and the ground cloud from the collapse of each of the World Trade Center Twin Towers on 9/11. He presents a warning that Vesuvius could go again at any time.
Inside the Volcano (2006?, History Channel) surveys mega volcanoes around the world, past and present. It starts out with a dire warning about what could happen with Yellowstone, and then goes on to historical eruptions that could explain the legend of Atlantis. Blogspot link
Comet Catastrophe (2007). A comet, being soft and squishy, cannot be nudged. Comet impacts may be more common than asteroids and one could have caused the Biblical Flood, maybe about 5000 years ago.
Asteroid Apocalypse (2007). Similar in consequences to a large comet strike (winding up with nuclear winter from a bit from an asteroid one mile across in the ocean near LA); an asteroid that passes through a "keyhole" has a greater chance of returning and hitting the US second time around. There is discussion of Space Guard that looks for NEO's (near earth objects). The extinction hit off the Yucatan 65 million years ago (ending the dinosaurs, which "became" birds and left room for mammals) is covered. Blogger.
Siberian Apocalypse (2004) reviews the evidence of the Tunguska explosion in June 1908, when the were bright nights all over Europe. Blogger.
The comet and asteroid "mega-disaster" films (including Siberia) are discussed at this blogger link.
Mega Disasters: Glacier Meltdown (2007, History Channel, 50 min) has even Washington DC at risk for flooding. Blogger link.
Mega Disasters: Hawaii Apocalypse (2007, History Channel, 45 min) has the shield volcano Mauna Loa on the Big Island with a big eruption; could threaten the West Coast and Honolulu with big tsunamis. Blogger link.
Mega Disasters: Methane Explosion (2007, History Channel, 45 min) is based on the idea that methane hydrate ice could, if jarred by a landslide, release enough methane to cause tsunamis and a worldwide firestorm, based on the theory of Northwestern University professor Gregory Ryskin. Blogger link.
The Discovery Channel has a film by the same name (2008). Blogger link.
Mega Disasters: Alien Infection (2007, History Channel, 45 min) presents the theory of panspermia, seeding earth with life and infectious disease from comets. Blogger link.
Mega Disasters: Super Swarm (2007, History Channel, 45 min) document the Rocky Mountain locust swarms of the 19th Century, as well as the Desert Locust, and speculates that Central American locusts could invade the US.
Mega Disasters: Oil Apocalypse (2007, History Channel, 45 min) documents the political and economic unraveling of modern society from oil tipping points. Blogger link.
Mega Disasters: L.A.'s Killer Earthquake (2007, History Channel), speculated to be possible along the Puenta Hills Fault, a thrust type fault. Blogger link.
Mega Disasters: The Next Pompeii (2007). That would be Naples, Italy. Blogger link.
Mega Disasters: Krakatoa's Revenge (2007), in Indonesia. The new risk is Anak Krakatau. Blogger link.
Mega Disasters: Tora Supervolcano (2008) in Indonesia, may have wiped out almost all of civilization 70000 years ago. Blogger.
Mega Disasters: Noah's Great Flood (2008) documents a theory that the Black Sea could have formed 8000 years ago when the Mediterranean overflowed through the Aegean Sea and Bosporus. Blogger link.
Mega Disasters: Dam Break (2008) examines the Johnstown Flood and then shows many modern dams, especially Hills Creek above Eugene OR, as well as showing the Minneapolis I-35 bridge collapse in 2007. Blogger.
Mega Disasters: Glow Train Catastrophe (2008) speculates that a train carrying nuclear radioactive waster for Yucca Mountain derails near Las Vegas.
Mega Disasters: American Volcano (2008) lays out a future eruption of Mt. Rainier near Seattle, with the mud flows or lamars, compared to Mt. St. Helens in 1980. The above two films are here on blogger.
Mega Disasters: Airborne Attack (2008) examines the use of weaponized anthrax as a possible weapon of a terrorist, and gives some very grim scenarios of hundreds of thousands of deaths in a large city. It takes two or three days for symptoms to appear. Blogger entry.
Mega Disasters: Deadly Jet Collision (2008) examines runway collisions, including Tenerife. Blogger.
Mega Disasters: Atlantis Apocalypse (2008) examines the explosion of Colombo volcano in the Santorini archipelago around 1660 BC, destroying Minoan civilization. Blogger.
Mega Disasters: Toxic Cloud (2008) explores chemical and refinery explosions and leaks, especially Texas City in 1947 and 2005, and Bhopal, India in 1984. Blogger.
The Next Plague: Avian Influenza, moved.
The Universe: Magnetic Storm (2010). About coronal mass ejection from Sun.
Cities of the Underworld: Washington DC, Seat of Power (2008, narr. Mark Shipman), covers the Greenbrier Bunker in White Sulphur Springs, W Va, mentions Mt. Weather, also Fort McHenry in Baltimore (from the War of 1812, over impressment "draft" of sailors), and Organ Cave in West Virginia, a secret location where the Confederacy made most of its gunpowder. Blogger.
How the Earth is Made: Krakatoa Blogger.
Apocalypse How (2008). Blogger.
ABC "20/20" presented "Last Days on Earth" on Aug. 30, 2006. This special discussed the seven biggest catastrophes that could end or radically alter civilization, in reverse order of probability. These are (7b) Gamma ray burst from a supernova in our galaxy (7a) rogue black hole (6) artificial intelligence (or maybe stem cell cloned intelligence!) sabotages us, like HAL ("IBM") in Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey (or maybe like ABC Family's Kyle XY) (5) Supervolcano eruption, such as the caldera under Yellowstone (4) Asteroid or comet (we could have near misses in 2029 and 2036) (3) Nuclear war (2) Super-pandemic, such as by H5N1 (which could conceivably have a much higher mortality rate than the 1918 flu, or by a bio-terror engineered virus, such as an "Ebola Reston" -- a version of Ebola that is casually contagious (author Laurie Garrett provided a lot of commentary), or (1) Global Warming, which could cause a 40 foot rise in sea levels well before 2100, resulting in mass refugee populations and enormous political stresses, as well as wiping out many coastal cities. As in "An Inconvenient Truth," Al Gore discusses global warming in detail. Stephen Hawking evaluates the probabilities of many of the scenarios.
Some of ABC's scenarios are reinforced by two books by Martin Rees, from 2004: Our Final Century, and Our Final Hour. One bizarre possibility is that a misconceived subparticle experiment could cause a chain reaction that leads to the implosion of the universe!
ABC's Bob Woodruff presented "Earth 2100" on June 2, 2009, with a fictitious character Lucy who lives through civilization's last century. Blogger.
National Geographic Films:
Ultimate Tsunami (July 27, 2006) is a one-hour documentary that surveys the history and science of tsunamis, and explains many of the details of the Dec 26, 2004 Indian Ocean catastrophe in Banda Aceh, Galle (Sri Lanka), and Thailand. This was a reflective tsunami, as many return waves came back over the same area more than once (especially at Galle). The program covered the 1958 landslide tsunami at Lituya Bay, Alaska, where a wave 1700 feet high overran a coastal inlet. This program speculates that Manua Loa, Hawaii could cause a huge landslide tsunami that would overrun Oahu and Honolulu (300 miles away) in 30 minutes if it had a large eruption. Warmer periods (global warming) with higher sea levels may encourage more landslide tsunamis.
Could either the Hawaii or Azores threat be reduced by “stripmining” the loose areas of overburden, given the advances of earth moving “mountaintop removal” technology for coal and metal ore mining?
Ultimate Tornado examines the tornadoes in Jarrell, TX in 1997 and Moore, OK (near Oklahoma City) in 1999, and lays out a scenario of a Fujita F5 roaring through downtown Dallas, TX. A lot of the damage comes from sandblasting and flying debris, that actually slow down the tornado.
Ultimate Earthquake examines the 1989 San Francisco earthquake (the fact that the World Series was on at that time may have saved lives), and the 1960 9.5 Chile earthquake. There are subduction and inter-plate events (like New Madrid). The tsunami that the Chile earthquake caused is explained, and a fictitious future event near Santiago is sketched, with tsunamis that would go across the Pacific. The Mexico City 1985 quake is also covered, since the Aztec’s built much of the city on filled in lake bed.
The Great Quake (2006, National Geographic, dir. Philip Smith) chronicles the great 4/18/1906 San Francisco earthquake, aftershocks and fire. The poor people lived in a landfill area south of Market street, where the soil liquefied into quicksand. The rich people lived in the higher sections that at first were not much affected; even mayor Schmitz had to be awakened. But soon fires consumed them, even as rich people watched while eating picnics. The Army build firebreaks and had to destroy wealthy sections to protect the western part of the City. But the pattern reminds us of the Johnstown, PA floods and the, of course, Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. The rebuilding would still not instill new codes, and with the 1989 earthquake the Market area would still pancake and collapse. The History Channel, on the same night (Easter, 4/16/2006) gave us
Naked Science: Glacier Melt (2008) (60 min) which examines the physics of glacier melting and comes to the shocking conclusion that sea levels could rise 150 feet this century. Blogger.
“American Experience: The Great San Francisco Earthquake” which gave more details about life in San Francisco just before the quake (the other two films covered the performance the night before of Bizet’s Carmen). PBS shows a brief live silent film of a fire department responding to a call, the men bunking in the same room and sliding down the fire pole in their underwear, an ironic presentation for San Francisco.
Savage Planet (2009) PBS series about natural dangers, including "Deadly Skies". Blogger.
Influenza 1918 (2009) PBS. Blogger. It could happen again with H5N1.
Discovery Channel Films:
Supervolcano (2005, BBC/Discover Channel, dir. Tony Mitchell, with Tom Brokaw) presents the scenario of the entire 50 mu x 25 mi caldera underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming (mostly) breaking up and presenting a super eruption, 6000 times the size of Mt. St. Helens. Life as we know it could not continue, as the country is covered by ash falling in a blizzard. Sam Charles plays the USGS scientist William Liebermann, who at one point is jawboned by Homeland Security into giving the public reassurances that break intellectual honesty. This pyroclastic eruption, where many vents break open, happens once about every 600000 years, and we are overdue. Blogger. Now available on YouTube in 10 segments.
Pompeii: The Last Day (2003, Discovery/BBC, dir. Peter Nicholson) was broadcast January 30, 2005 with a great deal of advertising, especially on the Washington, DC Metro. This is a docudrama that recreates what the last 18 years of that city’s life on Aug. 24, 79AD ,ust have been like. The explosions of Mt Vesuvius started like Mt Saint Helens, and were followed by several spectacular pyroclastic flows, that incinerated and buried everybody. In the modern day, about 4 million people live in the area and are exposed to a similar catastrophe. The film seems timely in light of the tsunami disaster. The style of filmmaking, however, was annoying, with repetitions of the same shots and lines of documentary script. The lead character, Stephanus, is played by Jonathan Firth.
Biblical Mysteries Explained: Sodom and Gomorrah (2008) presents an asteroid hit around 3000 BC, the largest in history. Blogger.
This Angry Earth:
Tsunami, The Rage (2005/1998, Bluth/Donavan, dir. Richard Bluth, 45 min, G) is an instructive documentary on tsunamis originally made well before the Christmas 2004 catastrophe in Indonesia. Blogger.
Natural Disasters: Forces of Nature (National Geographic, 2006, 40 min) narr. Kevin Bacon, covers Montserrat volcano, earthquake fault in Turkey, and tornadoes in Oklahoma. Blogger.
Cyber.Shockwave: We Were Warned (CNN, host Wolf Blitzer, Colin Powell, 2010). Blogger. A cyber 9/11 is simulated.
Krakatoa, East of Java (1969, Cinerama Releasing, dir.Bernard L. Kowalksi) is a famous account of the most catastrophic eruption in modern history, in the late 19th Century, in Indonesia. Maximilian Schell is the ship captain looking for lost treasure in a wreck near the volcano, when he is challenged to transport convicts home. Was shown in Cinerama in some theaters.
Earthquake (1974, Universal, dir. Mark Robson) was one of the first big “disaster movies,” actually augmented with “Sensoround” to shake the theater seats during unimaginable Los Angeles earthquakes, with dams rupturing and skyscrapers toppling.
The Last Wave (1977, World Northal, dir. Peter Weir, 106 min, PG) is a fascinating film that merges drama with science fiction and a taste of Armageddon. New South Wales is beset with torrential rains, as David Burton (Richard Chamberlain) defends five aboriginals and learns of their subculture right in the city, and of the prophecy of the submersion of the entire Australian continent. He winds up on the beach. The film may seem more timely today in view of the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean and recent concerns about the possibility of landslide-generated tsunamis that could reach Honolulu or even the US East and West coasts.
Twister (1996, Warner Bros./Amblin, dir. Jan de Bont) is the movie du jour about tornado chasing, starting with an incident in 1969 when a family member is sucked out of a storm cellar. This film has cows thrown in the air, all right, but some spectacular footage.
Tornado! (1996, Hallmark, dir. Noel Nosseck) is a similar film (to Twister) in which three huge tornados strike towns in the Texas Panhandle, after an auditor tries to shut down a research project.
Atomic Twister (2002, TBS / Touchstone, dir. Bill Corcoran, 100 min). A series of tornados repeatedly attack a nuclear power plant in western Tennessee, threatening a meltdown with not only the usual risk of radioactive release, but a big nuclear blast as well (not likely). Interesting recreation of the utility, and great special effects with the repeated twisters, but hysterical acting.
The Cloud (2006).
In 1997, Mick Jackson directed Volcano (20th Century Fox) in which a coastal volcano appears in downtown Los Angeles and threatens the city; I don’t know if that is a realistic scenario. However, Mono Lake in the northern Owens Valley of CA (south of the Cascades) is said to threaten volcanic activity.
Dante's Peak (1997, Universal, dir. Roger Donaldson) has Pierce Brosnan as Dr. Harry Dalton, who has to convince the townspeople of the "second most desirable place to live in America" that they need to give up their attachments and get out before a volcano blows. And it does.
Meteor (1979, American International (of course!), dir. Ronald Neame). Sean Connery plays in a B-movie story about an ("Orpheus") asteroid fragment, created by a comet collision, heading toward earth and threatening extinction. Anticipates bigger films in 1998 on the same theme (below).
Armageddon (1998, dir. Michael Bay, Touchtone/Jerry Bruckheimer Films, 150 min, PG-13) presents the Earth with an approaching asteroid. Ben Affleck, as a macho-man oil worker, Bruce Willis and Billy Bob Thornton team up to save the world. The scenes where Affleck drives a rover on the asteroid rather resemble driving an Avis rental car. Paris gets it. There is an impressive shot of a cathedral on the coast of Brittany with a fragment coming in.
Deep Impact (1998, dir, Mime Leder, Dreamworks, 120 min, PG-13, blog mov 2019/8/11) goes for slow buildup and drama as a comet approaches. Elijah Wood plays Leo, the boy who finds the comet. The film presents an interesting account of how the government might handle the triage and decide who gets saved during a Purification. The comet does hit in the Atlantic, and the resulting 1000-foot tsunami topples buildings in Manhattan. This what would really happen. The final scenes are flawed because there are no hills in Tidewater Virginia for the films heros to escape to. They will rebuild. Morgan Freeman plays the president.
Impact (2008, ABC, dir. Mike Rohl, Germany, 180 min). A piece of brown dwarf hits the moon and sends it on a collision course with Earth. Blogger.
The Day After Tomorrow (2004, 20th Century Fox and Lions Gate, dir. Roland Emmerich – “Independence Day” 1996) provides us with a glimpse of what it would be like if modern civilization could be destroyed in 48 hours by a sudden climate change. Mammoths supposedly freeze-dried in seconds, and here it happens to all of New York City. The theory is that if enough of the ice cap broke off and melted (a scenario from Clive Cussler in Atlantis Found) – here in the north—then the gulf stream could disrupted, leading to a super storm with barometric pressures so low that supercold air from stratosphere comes down and freezes everything north of Washington, DC. The disasters pile on so fast and the evacuations and diplomacy moves so quickly that no one can take it seriously. It’s all special effects: tornados in LA, floods in New York City (remember the buildings toppled over in Deep Impact; they didn’t here), and the New York in freeze-dried. Americans evacuate to Mexico and reverse the immigration dilemma. Dennis Quaid is the pop, and Jake Gyllenhaal is the clean-cut good-boy teenager (“Sam”), a role that works in Moonlight Mile but here seems like a caricature without the dramatic effect, say, of Clark in Smallville. In early 2001 ABC presented a similar TV movie called Ice, where the catastrophe is set in motion by sunspots, something we can do nothing about. We can, however, prevent global warming if we give up our wasteful consumptive ways—I guess this movie would make us feel guilty if it weren’t so silly!
10.5 – (2004, NBC films, 190 minutes) So this is one account of The Purification! Well, yes, the Pacific Plate side of southern California really slides into the sea as a series of earthquakes starting in Seattle go down, South and deeper. 10.5 would be 100 times stronger than 8.5 A channel opens up around LA as most of it falls into the sea, rather Biblical. Set, some of it is silly; the characters shallow and buffoonish (which does not mean comic-book like). John Schneider plays a camper bonding with his daughter, but you keep expecting Tom Welling (Clark Kent) to show up to save him. No such luck. I don’t have much of an idea if this is the way it would happen, or if Barstow CA, out in the desert, would become the new shore. This was an NBC movie May 2 and 3. In 2006, there will is sequel from the same director, 10.5: Apocalypse. A "rift fault" races through the plains states (felling the Mt. Rushmore monuments from "North by Northwest"), and threatens a nuclear power plant north of Houston until gas wells are blown up to divert the "fault." The rift puts a grand canyon through the midwest (perhaps 4000 feet deep in the upper great plains) to open a waterway from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, and split North America into two continents, kind of anti-pangeas. It's so hysterical that it's silly.
Category 7: The End of the World (2005, CBS, dir. Dick Lowry, Nov. 2005) is a TV lookalike of “The Day After Tomorrow” but it is so silly and hysterical as not to be believed. Imagine the Eiffel Tower falling down, as well as Mt. Rushmore. Imagine poisonous frogs in a restaurant (Victor Victoria). Even global warming can’t do this. It must be God’s punishment. By the way, land-based tornados don’t have categories; they have Fujita scales. The whole planet turns into a Venus or a Jupiter. Actually, a runaway greenhouse effect resulting in turning the earth into Venus sounds like an intriguing premise. How would mankind really face it? In Part 2, the “explanation” is that rising columns of air for human power consumption cause the extreme storms, so turing off the power—and Ross Perot-style shared sacrifice—is required. This potentially an important political message, however hysterical and silly the script (with the “kidnapping”). In 2004 there was a similar Category 6: Day of Destruction from the same directory. Presumably these films were shot before Katrina.
Ice (1998, ABC / Trimark, dir. Jean de Segonzac) supposes that a severe sunspot infection on the Sun causes snow to cover the US, even LA, in May and pretty soon a new ice age starts. Pretty hokey, compared to "Day After Tomorrow".
Aftershock: Earthquake in New York (1999, CBS / Paramount / Hallmark, dir. Mikael Salomon, novel by Chuck Scarborough, 170 min) is a 4-hour miniseries modeled after "Earthquake" (1974, above) but transposed to New York City. A big one really could happen there. The Guggenheim pancakes (the one in Bilbao, Spain is safer), the Statue of Liberty rolls (as it does in "Cloverfield") major masonry buildings collapse (like most of City Hall) and the big skyscrapers lose their skin. The WTC is standing and is visible in the pre 9/11 film.
The Sci-Fi Channel has a few generic disaster films in the "Nature Unleashed" series: Ice, Fire, Tornado, Avalanche, Earthquake, Volcano.
Nature Unleashed: Earthquake (2005, Platinum, dir. Tibor Takacs, UK/Canada/Lithuania, 92 min) Blogger.
Earthstorm, blogger link. The moon takes a big asteroid hit, with consequences for earth.
Meltdown: Days of Destruction, blogger link. An asteroid near miss causes the Earth's orbit to decay.
Haeundae (2009, CJ/JK (Sony?), dir. Je-Gyun Yun, 130 min, S. Korea) A tsunami overruns the port of Busan, after a complicated story involving the personal life of a quizzical geologist. Blogger.
2012 (2009, Columbia, dir. Roland Emmerich, 158 min, PG-13). Hollywood really destroys the world, and Cusack plays dual personality of intellectual writer and daredevil family man. The people who are worth saving get to ride on China’s arks for the next Flood. Blogger.
The Road (2009, Dimension/2929, dir. John Hillcoat, novel by Cormac McCarthy, 110 min, R) Blogger.
The Book of Eli (2010, Warner Brothers/Alcon, dir. Hughes Brothers) is a Braille Bible, in a post nuclear war world. Blogger.
This link for "Fatal Contact: Bird Flu in America and Pandemic."
There is more about tsunamis in "The Exodus Decoded."
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