New effort to curb access of Internet pornography by children;   S1507  Also USC 2257 enforcement   S2426  H5319-DOPA, April’s Law, PROTECT Act

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On July 27, 2005, NBC Today presented a study claiming that a large percentage of Internet pornography is accessed by minors, with the average age of first access  being 11.

One organization that is particularly vocal about this is Enough is Enough. A sister site is http://www.protectkids.com/

The spokesperson for the effort on the NBC program as Colby May.

Apparently there is a new bill in Congress that would require adult-id verification by sites offering pornography. Apparently this would differ from COPA in that the triggering content would be "pornography" and not "harmful to minors."

According to proponents of tougher legislation, the number of pornographic websites has increased from 14 million in 1998 to 428 million in 2005. 44% of a teenage boys have reportedly visited pornographic sites. 97% of pornographic sites do require adult verification, but proponents claim that these are charades. (In my own investigations in connection with COPA, I found that most pornography sites really did require credit card payment for most of their content. I would stop before an actual purchase. Many sites had a couple of pornographic "teasers" however. Supposedly, only persons over 18 would have credit cards, but this is not true in practice.

Proponents claim that there are new verification services like "Verify Me" that check age by whether a person has filed a tax return, has credit cards, has a credit score, etc. Of course, websites that accepted verification information would have to be careful that they did not incur downstream liability if hackers stole information for identity theft, so any such system would have to be designed carefully. I have not been able to find an operational website for this verification service yet.

Senator Blanche Lincoln (D-AR) has introduced the Internet Safety and Child Protection Act of 2005.  It would require age verification of pornographic websites, prohibit credit card companies from processing transactions without age verification tags, pass a 25% tax on pornographic transactions and establish an "Internet Safter and Child Protection Trust Fund." The Act so far is somewhat nonspecific as to how with would determine what is a pornographic web site in a gray area situation (I hope that does not include this site!!), and enforcement would be left with the Federal Trade Commission. There are troubling concerns that verification schemes could invite identity theft liability problems. 

http://lincoln.senate.gov/press_show.cfm?id=241537

http://lincoln.senate.gov/pdf/Internetchild.pdf

The text of the bill is at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:S.1507:  (You may have to re-enter the URL to get the query to run and display the entire page; paste into your browser.) Or try http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109_cong_bills&docid=f:s1507is.txt.pdf

Here is a copy of the text:

Internet Safety and Child Protection Act of 2005 (Introduced in Senate)

S 1507 IS

109th CONGRESS

1st Session

S. 1507

To protect children from Internet pornography and support law enforcement and other efforts to combat Internet and pornography-related crimes against children.

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

July 27, 2005

Mrs. LINCOLN (for herself, Mr. CARPER, Mr. PRYOR, Ms. LANDRIEU, Mr. LIEBERMAN, Mr. SALAZAR, Ms. STABENOW, Mr. BAYH, and Mr. CONRAD) introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance


A BILL

To protect children from Internet pornography and support law enforcement and other efforts to combat Internet and pornography-related crimes against children.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

This Act may be cited as the `Internet Safety and Child Protection Act of 2005'.

SEC. 2. PURPOSE.

The purpose of this Act is to--

(1) set tighter age verification standards to block minors from entering Internet pornography sites; and

(2) provide funding and support to law enforcement efforts to combat Internet and pornography-related crimes against children.

TITLE I--CHILD PROTECTION EFFORTS

SEC. 101. AGE VERIFICATION REQUIREMENT.

(a) In General- An operator of a regulated pornographic Web site shall verify that any user attempting to access their site is 18 years of age or older using software certified for that purpose by the Commission.

(b) Requirement- The age verification required by this section shall take place prior to the display of any pornographic material, including free content that may be available prior to the purchase of a subscription or product.

SEC. 102. CREDIT CARD REQUIREMENT.

A bank, credit card company, third-party merchant, Internet payment service provider, or business that performs financial transactions for a regulated pornographic Web site shall only process age-verified Internet pornography credit card transactions for sales carried out in accordance with this title.

SEC. 103. COMMISSION REQUIREMENT.

The Commission shall--

(1) require each regulated pornographic Web site to--

(A) use appropriate age-screening software to carry out this title; and

(B) use that software correctly and consistently through such means as conducting periodic tests trying to access the Web site without appropriate age verifications; and

(2) in coordination with the Department of Justice and other Federal agencies, maintain a list of regulated pornographic Web sites that are not in compliance with section 101.

SEC. 104. ENFORCEMENT BY THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION.

(a) Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices- A violation of section 101 shall be treated as a violation of section 18 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 57a) regarding unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

(b) Powers of Commission- The Commission shall issue and enforce the regulations for the enforcement of section 101 in the same manner, by the same means, and with the same jurisdiction, powers, and duties as though all applicable terms and provisions of the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.) were incorporated into and made a part of this title. Any person who violates such regulations shall be subject to the penalties provided in that title.

SEC. 105. DEFINITIONS.

In this title:

(1) COMMISSION- The term `Commission' means the Federal Trade Commission.

(2) REGULATED PORNOGRAPHIC WEB SITE- The term `regulated pornographic Web site' means a person required to maintain documents verifying the age of persons engaged in sexually explicit conduct pursuant to section 2257(a) of title 18, United States Code.

TITLE II--FUNDING FOR CHILD PROTECTION

Subtitle A--Excise Tax

SEC. 201. EXCISE TAX ON INTERNET DISPLAY OR DISTRIBUTION OF PORNOGRAPHY.

(a) In General- Chapter 33 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to facilities and services) is amended by inserting after subchapter C the following new subchapter:

`Subchapter D--Internet Display or Distribution of Pornography

`Sec. 4285. Internet display or distribution of pornography.

`SEC. 4285. INTERNET DISPLAY OR DISTRIBUTION OF PORNOGRAPHY.

`(a) Imposition of Tax- There is imposed on amounts charged by a regulated pornographic Web site for individuals to receive the display or distribution of pornography through the Internet a tax equal to 25 percent of the amounts so charged.

`(b) Payment of Tax- The tax imposed by this section shall be paid by the operator of the regulated pornographic Web site receiving payment for the display or distribution taxed under subsection (a).

`(c) Definitions- In this section:

`(1) PORNOGRAPHY- The term `pornography' has the same meaning as defined in section 2256(2) of title 18, United States Code.

`(2) REGULATED PORNOGRAPHIC WEB SITE- The term `regulated pornographic Web site' has the same meaning as defined in section 105 of the Internet Safety and Child Protection Act of 2005.'.

(b) Conforming Amendment- The table of subchapters for chapter 33 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by adding at the end the following new item:

`SUBCHAPTER D--INTERNET DISPLAY OR DISTRIBUTION OF PORNOGRAPHY'.

(c) Effective Date- The amendments made by this section shall take effect on January 1, 2006.

Subtitle B--Child Protection Programs

SEC. 211. TRUST FUND.

(a) In General- There is established in the Treasury the Internet Safety and Child Protection Trust Fund (referred to in this subtitle as the `trust fund') into which shall be deposited all taxes collected under section 4285 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(b) Availability of Amounts- Amounts deposited into the trust fund shall be available to carry out the programs provided in section 212, subject to annual appropriations.

SEC. 212. FUNDING FOR CHILD INTERNET SAFETY AND PROTECTION PROGRAMS.

(a) Priorities- Amounts available in the trust fund shall be allocated on a priority basis as follows:

(1) ENFORCEMENT OF THIS ACT- The first priority for the use of amounts in the trust fund shall be to provide funding for the appropriate Federal agencies to carry out the enforcement of sections 103, 104, and 201 of this Act. Funding may also be used to promote the development of technology that would facilitate the enforcement of this Act.

(2) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CYBER TIP-LINE- The second priority for the use of amounts in the trust fund shall be to provide funds to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention to ensure that the congressionally-mandated cyber tip line is fully operational and staffed 24 hours a day.

(3) INTERNET CRIMES AGAINST CHILDREN TASK FORCE- The third priority for the use of amounts in the trust fund shall be to provide funds to States to support 1 Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force center per 5,000,000 State residents, with each State receiving sufficient funding to support at least 1 center and no State receiving funding for more than 7 centers.

(4) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GRANTS-

(A) IN GENERAL- The fourth priority for the use of amounts in the trust fund is to establish a competitive grant process for companies and other organizations who work in the technology field to support the research and development into new filtering technologies that will help parents control children's access to inappropriate content via wireless and other emerging technologies.

(B) SET ASIDE- The Attorney General shall allocate up to 10 percent of annual trust fund revenues to award a minimum of 15 research and development grants under this paragraph.

(5) EDUCATIONAL TRAINING-

(A) IN GENERAL- The fifth priority for the use of amounts in the trust fund shall be to provide relevant State agencies with funds to support educational training contributing to greater child Internet safety and reductions in sex trafficking and sex crimes against children.

(B) CONDITIONS- The program authorized by this paragraph shall be carried out subject to the following conditions:

(i) States shall receive funding amounting to $1 for every resident, with a minimum of $1,000,000 for each State.

(ii) 25 percent of each State's funding shall go to the State education agency to support State and local programs providing child Internet safety training to teachers.

(iii) 30 percent of each State's funding shall go to the State Attorneys' General office to support child Internet safety training for law enforcement, as well as training that enhances the capacity of law enforcement to combat sex trafficking and sex crimes against children.

(iv) 10 percent of each State's funding shall be allocated to the Governor's office to develop and implement a coordinated State child internet safety strategy.

(v) 35 percent of the State funding shall go to the relevant State agency to support Public Service Announcements promoting child Internet safety.

(6) REMAINING AMOUNTS- After fully funding the priorities established in paragraphs (1) through (5) for a fiscal year any remaining amounts shall be allocated as follows:

(A) FEDERAL AGENCY SUPPORT- 50 percent of remaining amounts shall be used to provide funding to support child Internet safety activities, as well as activities combating sex trafficking and sex crimes against children, on the part of the following Federal agencies:

(i) Department of Justice.

(ii) Department of Commerce.

(iii) Department of Defense.

(iv) Department of Education.

(v) Department of Health and Human Services.

(vi) Department of State.

(vii) Department of Homeland Security.

(viii) Department of Treasury.

(ix) Department of Agriculture.

(x) United States Postal Service.

(xi) Federal Trade Commission.

(xii) Federal Communications Commission.

(xiii) National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

(B) PRIVATE ENTITIES-

(i) IN GENERAL- 50 percent of remaining amounts shall be allocated through a competitive grant process to international and domestic nongovernmental organizations and not-for-profits, to support work promoting child Internet safety and combating sex trafficking and sex crimes against children.

(ii) DETAILS- The Attorney General shall--

(I) publish guidance in the Federal Register describing the variety and scope of organizational work to be funded under this subparagraph in a fiscal year and soliciting grant proposals under this subparagraph; and

(II) allocate funds on the basis of a competitive grant process.

(iii) FUNDING LIMIT- For every $1 allocated for international work under this subparagraph, the Attorney General shall allocate $2.5 dollars for domestic work.

(b) Grant Programs-

(1) IN GENERAL- The Attorney General shall carry out this section.

(2) TERMS AND CONDITIONS- The Attorney General shall prescribe the terms and conditions for grant applications and awards under this section.

SEC. 213. DEFICIT REDUCTION.

Amounts remaining in the trust fund after the programs authorized in section 212 are funded shall be returned to the Treasury and applied to deficit reduction.

I will provide more detailed information about this matter as I develop it.

U. S. C. 2257, Record Keeping Requirements for Pornographic Media

Dyana Bagby reported in The Washington Blade, Aug. 12, 2005, "Federal court weighs rules on online sex pics," that a Colorado federal court held hearings on Aug. 2, 2005 for an injunction against enforcing this law, scheduled to take effect on Sept 7, 2005. Here is the URL for the Law: http://straylight.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode18/usc_sec_18_00002257----000-.html   Apparently the law would require Internet domain owners offering pornographic images to keep detailed records of all performers or actors to prove that they are of legal age. This measure is intended to counter child pornography. Plaintiffs maintain that adult web sites would, in practice, have to remove all pornographic images (essentially those showing explicit sexual acts or sexual body parts), but some domain owners fear that it could apply to all nudity. It is not clear how this would be enforce in practice. Would Section 230 of a 1996 law prevent ISP's from having downstream liability for customers who violate the law? (See this link for discussion). If not, even domain owners who do not offer pornography could conceivably be affected.

 H.R. 4623 The Child Obscenity and Pornography Prevention Act, filed Apr 30, 2002, is described at http://www.aclj.org/News/Read.aspx?ID=557 , http://www.aclu.org/Privacy/Privacy.cfm?ID=10364&c=252  also at http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h107-4623    The short description is “To prevent trafficking in child pornography and obscenity, to proscribe pandering and solicitation relating to visual depictions of minors engaging in sexually explicit conduct, to prevent the use of child pornography and obscenity to facilitate crimes against children, and for other purposes” and supposedly narrows the scope of the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 to answer constitutional objections. The Senate bill is 2511. 

Mark Pryor (AR) and Max Baucus (MT) (Democrats) proposed “XXX” domain TLD as mandatory for pornography sites, on March 15, 2006. It was not clear if “adult” was limited to pornography. This is from an afp.com news story. Here is more from the Senate: http://baucus.senate.gov/newsroom/details.cfm?view=03162006-domain   or http://pryor.senate.gov/newsroom/details.cfm?id=252708&   The bill is S. 2426  

Here is the link from Electronic Frontier Foundation on the problem:

https://secure.eff.org/site/Advocacy?JServSessionIdr011=i6p9aqaxu1.app13b&cmd=display&page=UserAction&id=219 

Bill’s status:  http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?c109:1:./temp/~c109Q6HTiT:: (you may have to go to http://thomas.loc.gov and re-enter the search)

Even so. ICANN has apparently shelved plans to use .xxx as a TLD, according to Yahoo! Writer Burt Helm, “A Hot Domain on Ice,” April 4, 2006, at http://news.yahoo.com/s/bw/tc20060403979619

2257 text is at http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode18/usc_sec_18_00002257----000-.html 

§ 2257. Record keeping requirements

 (a) Whoever produces any book, magazine, periodical, film, videotape, or other matter which—

(1) contains one or more visual depictions made after November 1, 1990 of actual sexually explicit conduct; and

(2) is produced in whole or in part with materials which have been mailed or shipped in interstate or foreign commerce, or is shipped or transported or is intended for shipment or transportation in interstate or foreign commerce;

shall create and maintain individually identifiable records pertaining to every performer portrayed in such a visual depiction.

(b) Any person to whom subsection (a) applies shall, with respect to every performer portrayed in a visual depiction of actual sexually explicit conduct—

(1) ascertain, by examination of an identification document containing such information, the performer’s name and date of birth, and require the performer to provide such other indicia of his or her identity as may be prescribed by regulations;

(2) ascertain any name, other than the performer’s present and correct name, ever used by the performer including maiden name, alias, nickname, stage, or professional name; and

(3) record in the records required by subsection (a) the information required by paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection and such other identifying information as may be prescribed by regulation.

(c) Any person to whom subsection (a) applies shall maintain the records required by this section at his business premises, or at such other place as the Attorney General may by regulation prescribe and shall make such records available to the Attorney General for inspection at all reasonable times.

(d)

(1) No information or evidence obtained from records required to be created or maintained by this section shall, except as provided in this section, directly or indirectly, be used as evidence against any person with respect to any violation of law.

(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not preclude the use of such information or evidence in a prosecution or other action for a violation of this chapter or chapter 71, or for a violation of any applicable provision of law with respect to the furnishing of false information.

(e)

(1) Any person to whom subsection (a) applies shall cause to be affixed to every copy of any matter described in paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section, in such manner and in such form as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe, a statement describing where the records required by this section with respect to all performers depicted in that copy of the matter may be located.

(2) If the person to whom subsection (a) of this section applies is an organization the statement required by this subsection shall include the name, title, and business address of the individual employed by such organization responsible for maintaining the records required by this section.

(f) It shall be unlawful—

(1) for any person to whom subsection (a) applies to fail to create or maintain the records as required by subsections (a) and (c) or by any regulation promulgated under this section;

(2) for any person to whom subsection (a) applies knowingly to make any false entry in or knowingly to fail to make an appropriate entry in, any record required by subsection (b) of this section or any regulation promulgated under this section;

(3) for any person to whom subsection (a) applies knowingly to fail to comply with the provisions of subsection (e) or any regulation promulgated pursuant to that subsection; and

(4) for any person knowingly to sell or otherwise transfer, or offer for sale or transfer, any book, magazine, periodical, film, video, or other matter, produce in whole or in part with materials which have been mailed or shipped in interstate or foreign commerce or which is intended for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, which—

(A) contains one or more visual depictions made after the effective date of this subsection of actual sexually explicit conduct; and

(B) is produced in whole or in part with materials which have been mailed or shipped in interstate or foreign commerce, or is shipped or transported or is intended for shipment or transportation in interstate or foreign commerce;

which does not have affixed thereto, in a manner prescribed as set forth in subsection (e)(1), a statement describing where the records required by this section may be located, but such person shall have no duty to determine the accuracy of the contents of the statement or the records required to be kept.

(g) The Attorney General shall issue appropriate regulations to carry out this section.

(h) As used in this section—

(1) the term “actual sexually explicit conduct” means actual but not simulated conduct as defined in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (2) of section 2256 of this title;

(2) identification document” has the meaning given that term in section 1028 (d) of this title;

(3) the term “produces” means to produce, manufacture, or publish any book, magazine, periodical, film, video tape, computer generated image, digital image, or picture, or other similar matter and includes the duplication, reproduction, or reissuing of any such matter, but does not include mere distribution or any other activity which does not involve hiring, contracting for managing, or otherwise arranging for the participation of the performers depicted; and

(4) the term “performer” includes any person portrayed in a visual depiction engaging in, or assisting another person to engage in, actual sexually explicit conduct.

(i) Whoever violates this section shall be imprisoned for not more than 5 years, and fined in accordance with the provisions of this title, or both. Whoever violates this section after having been convicted of a violation punishable under this section shall be imprisoned for any period of years not more than 10 years but not less than 2 years, and fined in accordance with the provisions of this title, or both.

 

 

But 2257 is strengthened in 2005 by the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, HR 4472, signed into law July 27, 2006. A White House fact sheet is at

http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/07/20060727-7.html 

An article by Joshua Lynsen in The Washington Blade, Aug 25, 2006 is “Updated adult website regs ‘a huge headache: New federal rules driving some porn producers out of business.”  http://www.washingtonblade.com/2006/8-25/news/national/regulations.cfm 

 

The applicable wording seems to start in Section 502:

 

SEC. 502. OTHER RECORD KEEPING REQUIREMENTS.

(a) In General- Section 2257 of title 18, United States Code, is amended--

(1) in subsection (a), by inserting after `videotape,' the following: `digital image, digitally- or computer-manipulated image of an actual human being, picture,';

(2) in subsection (e)(1), by adding at the end the following: `In this paragraph, the term `copy' includes every page of a website on which matter described in subsection (a) appears.';

(3) in subsection (f), by--

(A) in paragraph (3), by striking `and' after the semicolon;

(B) in paragraph (4), by striking the period and inserting `; and'; and

(C) by adding at the end the following:

`(5) for any person to whom subsection (a) applies to refuse to permit the Attorney General or his or her designee to conduct an inspection under subsection (c).'; and

(4) by striking subsection (h) and inserting the following:

`(h) In this section--

`(1) the term `actual sexually explicit conduct' means actual but not simulated conduct as defined in clauses (i) through (v) of section 2256(2)(A) of this title;

`(2) the term `produces'--

`(A) means--

`(i) actually filming, videotaping, photographing, creating a picture, digital image, or digitally- or computer-manipulated image of an actual human being;

`(ii) digitizing an image, of a visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct; or, assembling, manufacturing, publishing, duplicating, reproducing, or reissuing a book, magazine, periodical, film, videotape, digital image, or picture, or other matter intended for commercial distribution, that contains a visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct; or

`(iii) inserting on a computer site or service a digital image of, or otherwise managing the sexually explicit content, of a computer site or service that contains a visual depiction of, sexually explicit conduct; and

`(B) does not include activities that are limited to--

`(i) photo or film processing, including digitization of previously existing visual depictions, as part of a commercial enterprise, with no other commercial interest in the sexually explicit material, printing, and video duplication;

`(ii) distribution;

`(iii) any activity, other than those activities identified in subparagraph (A), that does not involve the hiring, contracting for, managing, or otherwise arranging for the participation of the depicted performers;

`(iv) the provision of a telecommunications service, or of an Internet access service or Internet information location tool (as those terms are defined in section 231 of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 231)); or

`(v) the transmission, storage, retrieval, hosting, formatting, or translation (or any combination thereof) of a communication, without selection or alteration of the content of the communication, except that deletion of a particular communication or material made by another person in a manner consistent with section 230(c) of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 230(c)) shall not constitute such selection or alteration of the content of the communication; and

`(3) the term `performer' includes any person portrayed in a visual depiction engaging in, or assisting another person to engage in, sexually explicit conduct.'.

(b) Construction- The provisions of section 2257 shall not apply to any depiction of actual sexually explicit conduct as described in clause (v) of section 2256(2)(A) of title 18, United States Code, produced in whole or in part, prior to the effective date of this section unless that depiction also includes actual sexually explicit conduct as described in clauses (i) through (iv) of section 2256(2)(A) of title 18, United States Code.

SEC. 503. RECORD KEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR SIMULATED SEXUAL CONDUCT.

(a) In General- Chapter 110 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after section 2257 the following:

`SEC. 2257A. RECORD KEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR SIMULATED SEXUAL CONDUCT.

`(a) Whoever produces any book, magazine, periodical, film, videotape, digital image, digitally- or computer-manipulated image of an actual human being, picture, or other matter that--

`(1) contains 1 or more visual depictions of simulated sexually explicit conduct; and

`(2) is produced in whole or in part with materials which have been mailed or shipped in interstate or foreign commerce, or is shipped or transported or is intended for shipment or transportation in interstate or foreign commerce;

shall create and maintain individually identifiable records pertaining to every performer portrayed in such a visual depiction.

`(b) Any person to whom subsection (a) applies shall, with respect to every performer portrayed in a visual depiction of simulated sexually explicit conduct--

`(1) ascertain, by examination of an identification document containing such information, the performer's name and date of birth, and require the performer to provide such other indicia of his or her identity as may be prescribed by regulations;

`(2) ascertain any name, other than the performer's present and correct name, ever used by the performer including maiden name, alias, nickname, stage, or professional name; and

`(3) record in the records required by subsection (a) the information required by paragraphs (1) and (2) and such other identifying information as may be prescribed by regulation.

`(c) Any person to whom subsection (a) applies shall maintain the records required by this section at their business premises, or at such other place as the Attorney General may by regulation prescribe and shall make such records available to the Attorney General for inspection at all reasonable times.

`(d)(1) No information or evidence obtained from records required to be created or maintained by this section shall, except as provided in this section, directly or indirectly, be used as evidence against any person with respect to any violation of law.

`(2) Paragraph (1) shall not preclude the use of such information or evidence in a prosecution or other action for a violation of this chapter or chapter 71, or for a violation of any applicable provision of law with respect to the furnishing of false information.

`(e)(1) Any person to whom subsection (a) applies shall cause to be affixed to every copy of any matter described in subsection (a)(1) in such manner and in such form as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe, a statement describing where the records required by this section with respect to all performers depicted in that copy of the matter may be located. In this paragraph, the term `copy' includes every page of a website on which matter described in subsection (a) appears.

`(2) If the person to whom subsection (a) applies is an organization the statement required by this subsection shall include the name, title, and business address of the individual employed by such organization responsible for maintaining the records required by this section.

`(f) It shall be unlawful--

`(1) for any person to whom subsection (a) applies to fail to create or maintain the records as required by subsections (a) and (c) or by any regulation promulgated under this section;

`(2) for any person to whom subsection (a) applies knowingly to make any false entry in or knowingly to fail to make an appropriate entry in, any record required by subsection (b) or any regulation promulgated under this section;

`(3) for any person to whom subsection (a) applies knowingly to fail to comply with the provisions of subsection (e) or any regulation promulgated pursuant to that subsection; or

`(4) for any person knowingly to sell or otherwise transfer, or offer for sale or transfer, any book, magazine, periodical, film, video, or other matter, produced in whole or in part with materials which have been mailed or shipped in interstate or foreign commerce or which is intended for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, that--

`(A) contains 1 or more visual depictions made after the date of enactment of this subsection of simulated sexually explicit conduct; and

`(B) is produced in whole or in part with materials which have been mailed or shipped in interstate or foreign commerce, or is shipped or transported or is intended for shipment or transportation in interstate or foreign commerce;

which does not have affixed thereto, in a manner prescribed as set forth in subsection (e)(1), a statement describing where the records required by this section may be located, but such person shall have no duty to determine the accuracy of the contents of the statement or the records required to be kept.

`(5) for any person to whom subsection (a) applies to refuse to permit the Attorney General or his or her designee to conduct an inspection under subsection (c).

`(g) As used in this section, the terms `produces' and `performer' have the same meaning as in section 2257(h) of this title.

`(h)(1) The provisions of this section and section 2257 shall not apply to matter, or any image therein, containing one or more visual depictions of simulated sexually explicit conduct, or actual sexually explicit conduct as described in clause (v) of section 2256(2)(A), if such matter--

`(A)(i) is intended for commercial distribution;

`(ii) is created as a part of a commercial enterprise by a person who certifies to the Attorney General that such person regularly and in the normal course of business collects and maintains individually identifiable information regarding all performers, including minor performers, employed by that person, pursuant to Federal and State tax, labor, and other laws, labor agreements, or otherwise pursuant to industry standards, where such information includes the name, address, and date of birth of the performer; and

`(iii) is not produced, marketed or made available by the person described in clause (ii) to another in circumstances such than an ordinary person would conclude that the matter contains a visual depiction that is child pornography as defined in section 2256(8); or

`(B)(i) is subject to the authority and regulation of the Federal Communications Commission acting in its capacity to enforce section 1464 of this title, regarding the broadcast of obscene, indecent or profane programming; and

`(ii) is created as a part of a commercial enterprise by a person who certifies to the Attorney General that such person regularly and in the normal course of business collects and maintains individually identifiable information regarding all performers, including minor performers, employed by that person, pursuant to Federal and State tax, labor, and other laws, labor agreements, or otherwise pursuant to industry standards, where such information includes the name, address, and date of birth of the performer.

`(2) Nothing in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1) shall be construed to exempt any matter that contains any visual depiction that is child pornography, as defined in section 2256(8), or is actual sexually explicit conduct within the definitions in clauses (i) through (iv) of section 2256(2)(A).

`(i)(1) Whoever violates this section shall be imprisoned for not more than 1 year, and fined in accordance with the provisions of this title, or both.

`(2) Whoever violates this section in an effort to conceal a substantive offense involving the causing, transporting, permitting or offering or seeking by notice or advertisement, a minor to engage in sexually explicit conduct for the purpose of producing a visual depiction of such conduct in violation of this title, or to conceal a substantive offense that involved trafficking in material involving the sexual exploitation of a minor, including receiving, transporting, advertising, or possessing material involving the sexual exploitation of a minor with intent to traffic, in violation of this title, shall be imprisoned for not more than 5 years and fined in accordance with the provisions of this title, or both.

`(3) Whoever violates paragraph (2) after having been previously convicted of a violation punishable under that paragraph shall be imprisoned for any period of years not more than 10 years but not less than 2 years, and fined in accordance with the provisions of this title, or both.

`The provisions of this section shall not become effective until 90 days after the final regulations implementing this section are published in the Federal Register. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any matter, or image therein, produced, in whole or in part, prior to the effective date of this section.

`(k) On an annual basis, the Attorney General shall submit a report to Congress--

`(1) concerning the enforcement of this section and section 2257 by the Department of Justice during the previous 12-month period; and

`(2) including--

`(A) the number of inspections undertaken pursuant to this section and section 2257;

`(B) the number of open investigations pursuant to this section and section 2257;

`(C) the number of cases in which a person has been charged with a violation of this section and section 2257; and

`(D) for each case listed in response to subparagraph (C), the name of the lead defendant, the federal district in which the case was brought, the court tracking number, and a synopsis of the violation and its disposition, if any, including settlements, sentences, recoveries and penalties.'.

(b) Chapter Analysis- The chapter analysis for chapter 110 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after the item for section 2257 the following:

`2257A. Recordkeeping requirements for simulated sexual conduct.'.

SEC. 504. PREVENTION OF DISTRIBUTION OF CHILD PORNOGRAPHY USED AS EVIDENCE IN PROSECUTIONS.

Section 3509 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:

`(m) Prohibition on Reproduction of Child Pornography-

`(1) In any criminal proceeding, any property or material that constitutes child pornography (as defined by section 2256 of this title) shall remain in the care, custody, and control of either the Government or the court.

`(2)(A) Notwithstanding Rule 16 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, a court shall deny, in any criminal proceeding, any request by the defendant to copy, photograph, duplicate, or otherwise reproduce any property or material that constitutes child pornography (as defined by section 2256 of this title), so long as the Government makes the property or material reasonably available to the defendant.

`(B) For the purposes of subparagraph (A), property or material shall be deemed to be reasonably available to the defendant if the Government provides ample opportunity for inspection, viewing, and examination at a Government facility of the property or material by the defendant, his or her attorney, and any individual the defendant may seek to qualify to furnish expert testimony at trial.'.

SEC. 505. AUTHORIZING CIVIL AND CRIMINAL ASSET FORFEITURE IN CHILD EXPLOITATION AND OBSCENITY CASES.

(a) Conforming Forfeiture Procedures for Obscenity Offenses- Section 1467 of title 18, United States Code, is amended--

(1) in subsection (a)(3), by inserting a period after `of such offense' and striking all that follows; and

(2) by striking subsections (b) through (n) and inserting the following:

`(b) The provisions of section 413 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 853), with the exception of subsections (a) and (d), shall apply to the criminal forfeiture of property pursuant to subsection (a).

`(c) Any property subject to forfeiture pursuant to subsection (a) may be forfeited to the United States in a civil case in accordance with the procedures set forth in chapter 46 of this title.'.

(b) Property Subject to Criminal Forfeiture- Section 2253(a) of title 18, United States Code, is amended--

(1) in the matter preceding paragraph (1)--

(A) by inserting `or who is convicted of an offense under section 2252B of this chapter,' after `2260 of this chapter'; and

(B) by striking `an offense under section 2421, 2422, or 2423 of chapter 117' and inserting `an offense under chapter 109A';

(2) in paragraph (1), by inserting `2252A, 2252B, or 2260' after `2252'; and

(3) in paragraph (3), by inserting `or any property traceable to such property' before the period.

(c) Criminal Forfeiture Procedure- Section 2253 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking subsections (b) through (o) and inserting the following:

`(b) Section 413 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 853) with the exception of subsections (a) and (d), applies to the criminal forfeiture of property pursuant to subsection (a).'.

(d) Civil Forfeiture- Section 2254 of title 18, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

`Sec. 2254. Civil forfeiture

`Any property subject to forfeiture pursuant to section 2253 may be forfeited to the United States in a civil case in accordance with the procedures set forth in chapter 46.'.

SEC. 506. PROHIBITING THE PRODUCTION OF OBSCENITY AS WELL AS TRANSPORTATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND SALE.

(a) Section 1465- Section 1465 of title 18 of the United States Code is amended--

(1) by inserting `production and' before `transportation' in the heading of the section;

(2) by inserting `produces with the intent to transport, distribute, or transmit in interstate or foreign commerce, or whoever knowingly' after `whoever knowingly' and before `transports or travels in'; and

(3) by inserting a comma after `in or affecting such commerce'.

(b) Section 1466- Section 1466 of title 18 of the United States Code is amended--

(1) in subsection (a), by inserting `producing with intent to distribute or sell, or' before `selling or transferring obscene matter,';

(2) in subsection (b), by inserting, `produces' before `sells or transfers or offers to sell or transfer obscene matter'; and

(3) in subsection (b) by inserting `production,' before `selling or transferring or offering to sell or transfer such material.'.

 

 

S.2426
Title: A bill to facilitate the protection of minors using the Internet from material that is harmful to minors, and for other purposes.
Sponsor: Sen Baucus, Max [MT] (introduced
3/16/2006)      Cosponsors (2)
Latest Major Action:
3/16/2006 Referred to Senate committee. Status: Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

 

Here is the bill’s text:

 

Cyber Safety for Kids Act of 2006 (Introduced in Senate)

S 2426 IS

109th CONGRESS

2d Session

S. 2426

To facilitate the protection of minors using the Internet from material that is harmful to minors, and for other purposes.

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

March 16 (legislative day, MARCH 15), 2006

Mr. BAUCUS (for himself and Mr. PRYOR) introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation


A BILL

To facilitate the protection of minors using the Internet from material that is harmful to minors, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

This Act may be cited as the `Cyber Safety for Kids Act of 2006'.

SEC. 2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TOP-LEVEL INTERNET DOMAIN NAME.

(a) NTIA Action- Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce, acting through the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, shall--

(1) pursuant to the authority under section II.B. of the Memorandum of Understanding Between the United States Department of Commerce and ICANN, entered into on November 25, 1998, regarding oversight of the policy for determining the circumstances under which new top-level Internet domains are added to the root system, jointly with ICANN, develop a plan in accordance with section 102 for ICANN to establish a new domain meeting the requirements in subsection (b);

(2) upon completion of the plan developed under paragraph (1), make such plan publicly available;

(3) enter into any memorandums of understanding, agreements, and contracts with ICANN, as may be necessary to carry out the plan developed under paragraph (1); and

(4) make any amendments to any existing memorandums of understandings, agreements, and contracts with ICANN, as may be necessary to carry out the plan developed under paragraph (1).

(b) Requirements for New Domain- The new domain established under subsection (a) shall be subject to the following requirements:

(1) TOP-LEVEL, INTERNATIONAL DOMAIN-

(A) IN GENERAL- The new domain shall be established as a top-level, International domain having a domain name appropriate for its purpose.

(B) DOMAIN NAME ENDING- The new domain shall have domain name that ends in a manner that allows a user of the Internet to understand that by accessing such domain, a user is likely to view material that is harmful to minors, such as domain name ending in .xxx.

(2) OPERATOR OF DOMAIN- The entity selected pursuant to section 3 to establish, operate, and maintain the new domain shall--

(A) establish, operate, and maintain the new domain in accordance with this subsection; and

(B) provide for the creation of an independent board, with diverse membership, which shall be responsible for--

(i) establishing written criteria for--

(I) accepting registrants for the new domain; and

(II) any limitations applicable to the new domain; and

(ii) ensuring that subscription rates or fees for obtaining a name for the new domain are as minimal as possible.

(3) OTHER REQUIREMENTS- The plan developed under subsection (a) may include such other requirements with respect to the new domain as the National Telecommunications and Information Administration and ICANN jointly consider appropriate.

SEC. 3. SELECTION OF OPERATOR OF NEW DOMAIN.

(a) Application Process- The plan developed under section 2(a) shall establish a process for soliciting applications for the establishment of the new domain described in section 2, which process shall--

(1) commence and complete not later than 60 days after the expiration of the 30-day period referred to in section 2(a);

(2) provide adequate notice to prospective applicants of--

(A) the opportunity to submit an application; and

(B) the criteria for selection under subsection (b)(1);

(3) include a fee for filing an application that does not exceed the minimum amount reasonably estimated by ICANN to be necessary to recover its expenses under section 2 and this section; and

(4) provide for reimbursement to applicants of any amounts collected in filing fees that exceed the actual amount of expenses of ICANN under section 2 and this section.

(b) Selection Process-

(1) IN GENERAL- The plan developed under section 2(a) shall establish a process for selection, from applications submitted pursuant to subsection (a), of an application for the establishment of the new domain meeting the requirements under section 2(b).

(2) REQUIREMENTS- The selection process described in paragraph (1) shall comply with the following requirements:

(A) CRITERIA- The selection shall be made pursuant to written, objective criteria designed to ensure that--

(i) the new domain is established, operated, and maintained in accordance with the requirements under section 2(b); and

(ii) the entity selected to establish, operate, and maintain the new domain is the applicant most capable and qualified to do so.

(B) INITIAL REVIEW- Not later than 60 days after the completion of the application period under subsection (a)(1), ICANN shall--

(i) review and apply the selection criteria established under subparagraph (A) to each application submitted; and

(ii) based upon such criteria, select an application and award to the applicant a contract for the establishment, operation, and maintenance of the new domain, unless ICANN determines that no applicant could minimally provide for the establishment, operation, and maintenance of the new domain in accordance with the requirements under section 2(b).

(C) SECOND APPLICATION PERIOD- If no applicant is selected pursuant to subparagraph (B), not later than 30 days after the expiration of the 60-day period under subparagraph (B), ICANN shall commence another application and selection process that complies with the requirements under subsection (a) and this subsection.

(D) REPORT- If the second application and selection process under subparagraph (C) does not result in the award of a contract for the establishment, operation, and maintenance of the new domain, not later than 30 days after the conclusion of the 60-day period under subparagraph (C), ICANN shall--

(i) notify the Secretary of Commerce in writing of the failure to award a contract under subparagraph (C); and

(ii) submit to the Secretary of Commerce a report describing the application and selection process and setting forth the reasons for the failure to award the contract.

(c) Full Operation- The plan developed under section 2(a) shall provide for ICANN to take all actions necessary to facilitate the full operation of the new domain not later than 6 months after the award of the contract for the establishment, operation, and maintenance of the new domain.

(d) Annual Oversight- The plan developed under section 2(a) shall provide that ICANN shall, on an annual basis, review the actions of the entity selected to establish, operate, and maintain the new domain to ensure that such entity is complying with the requirements under section 2(b).

SEC. 4. USE OF NEW DOMAIN.

Commencing not later than 6 months after the establishment of the new domain under section 2, any operator of a commercial Internet website or online service that has as its principal or primary business the making available of material that is harmful to minors shall register such website or online service with the new domain and operate such website or online service under the new domain.

SEC. 5. LIABILITY PROTECTIONS.

(a) Treatment of Publisher or Speaker- No person or entity that operates or maintains the new domain shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information or material provided by another registrant under the domain.

(b) Civil Liability- No person or entity that operates or maintains the new domain shall be held liable because of--

(1) any action voluntarily taken in good faith to restrict to minors access through the new domain to, or availability through the new domain of, material that is harmful to minors; or

(2) any action taken to enable or make available to registrants to the new domain or others the technical means to restrict access by minors to material described in paragraph (1).

SEC. 6. ENFORCEMENT.

(a) Violation- Any person who violates section 4, or any requirement, registration criteria, or limitation applicable to a registrant to the new domain under section 2(b), shall be subject to such civil penalties as the Secretary of Commerce shall prescribe.

(b) Enforcement- The Secretary of Commerce shall have the power to enforce the provisions of this title, including--

(1) any requirements or limitations applicable to a registrant to the new domain under section 2(b); and

(2) the imposition and collection of civil penalties under subsection (a).

(c) Periodic Audits- The Secretary of Commerce shall conduct periodic audits to ensure compliance with requirements, registration criteria, and limitations applicable to the new domain under this title.

SEC. 7. OUTREACH.

(a) In General- The Secretary of Commerce, acting through the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, shall carry out a program to publicize the availability of the new domain under this title.

(b) Commencement- The program under subsection (a) shall commence not later than 30 days after the date that the new domain first becomes operational and accessible by the public.

SEC. 8. DEFINITIONS.

In this Act, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) ICANN- The term `ICANN' means the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

(2) MATERIAL THAT IS HARMFUL TO MINORS- The term `material that is harmful to minors' means any communication, picture, image, graphic image file, article, recording, writing, or other matter of any kind that is obscene, or that a reasonable person would find--

(A) taking the material as a whole and with respect to minors, is designed to appeal to, or is designed to pander to, the prurient interest;

(B) depicts, describes, or represents, in a manner patently offensive with respect to minors--

(i) an actual or simulated sexual act or sexual contact;

(ii) an actual or simulated normal or perverted sexual act; or

(iii) a lewd exhibition of the genitals or post-pubescent female breast; and

(C) taking the material as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors.

(3) MINOR- The term `minor' means any person under 18 years of age.

(4) NEW DOMAIN- The term `new domain' means the Internet domain established under this title.


Also related will be the Child Safety Act of 2005, HR 3132, to greatly strengthen sex offender registry.

http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:H.R.3132:

or http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Child-Safety-Act-of-2005&id=55067

HR 5319, DOPA

Now there is a “Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006”, H.R. 5319, (“DOPA”), whipped together in the spring of 2006, which would give the FTC responsibility for defining “social networking sites” and prohibiting schools and libraries that receive federal funds from letting minors access them without parental consent.

Here is a typical discussion: http://www.danah.org/papers/MySpaceDOPA.html , or Declan McCullagh’s analysis on CNET http://news.com.com/Chat+rooms+could+face+expulsion/2100-1028_3-6099414.html 

 

Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006 (Engrossed as Agreed to or Passed by House)

109th CONGRESS

2d Session

H. R. 5319

AN ACT

To amend the Communications Act of 1934 to require recipients of universal service support for schools and libraries to protect minors from commercial social networking websites and chat rooms.

HR 5319 EH

109th CONGRESS

2d Session

H. R. 5319


AN ACT

To amend the Communications Act of 1934 to require recipients of universal service support for schools and libraries to protect minors from commercial social networking websites and chat rooms.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

This Act may be cited as the `Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006'.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

The Congress finds that--

(1) sexual predators approach minors on the Internet using chat rooms and social networking websites, and, according to the United States Attorney General, one in five children has been approached sexually on the Internet;

(2) sexual predators can use these chat rooms and websites to locate, learn about, befriend, and eventually prey on children by engaging them in sexually explicit conversations, asking for photographs, and attempting to lure children into a face to face meeting; and

(3) with the explosive growth of trendy chat rooms and social networking websites, it is becoming more and more difficult to monitor and protect minors from those with devious intentions, particularly when children are away from parental supervision.

SEC. 3. CERTIFICATIONS TO INCLUDE PROTECTIONS AGAINST COMMERCIAL SOCIAL NETWORKING WEBSITES AND CHAT ROOMS.

(a) Certification by Schools- Section 254(h)(5)(B) of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 254(h)(5)(B)) is amended by striking clause (i) and inserting the following:

`(i) is enforcing a policy of Internet safety for minors that includes monitoring the online activities of minors and the operation of a technology protection measure with respect to any of its computers with Internet access that--

`(I) protects against access through such computers to visual depictions that are--

`(aa) obscene;

`(bb) child pornography; or

`(cc) harmful to minors; and

`(II) protects against access to a commercial social networking website or chat room unless used for an educational purpose with adult supervision; and'.

(b) Certification by Libraries- Section 254(h)(6)(B) of such Act (47 U.S.C. 254(h)(6)(B)) is amended by striking clause (i) and inserting the following:

`(i) is enforcing a policy of Internet safety that includes the operation of a technology protection measure with respect to any of its computers with Internet access that--

`(I) protects against access through such computers to visual depictions that are--

`(aa) obscene;

`(bb) child pornography; or

`(cc) harmful to minors; and

`(II) protects against access by minors without parental authorization to a commercial social networking website or chat room, and informs parents that sexual predators can use these websites and chat rooms to prey on children; and'.

(c) Definitions- Section 254(h)(7) is amended by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:

`(J) COMMERCIAL SOCIAL NETWORKING WEBSITES; CHAT ROOMS- Within 120 days after the date of enactment of the Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006, the Commission shall by rule define the terms `social networking website' and `chat room' for purposes of this subsection. In determining the definition of a social networking website, the Commission shall take into consideration the extent to which a website--

`(i) is offered by a commercial entity;

`(ii) permits registered users to create an on-line profile that includes detailed personal information;

`(iii) permits registered users to create an on-line journal and share such a journal with other users;

`(iv) elicits highly-personalized information from users; and

`(v) enables communication among users.'.

(d) Disabling During Adult or Educational Use- Section 254(h)(5)(D) of such Act is amended--

(1) by inserting `OR EDUCATIONAL' after `DURING ADULT' in the heading; and

(2) by inserting before the period at the end the following: `or during use by an adult or by minors with adult supervision to enable access for educational purposes pursuant to subparagraph (B)(i)(II)' .

SEC. 4. FTC CONSUMER ALERT ON INTERNET DANGERS TO CHILDREN.

(a) Information Regarding Child Predators and the Internet- Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Federal Trade Commission shall--

(1) issue a consumer alert regarding the potential dangers to children of Internet child predators, including the potential danger of commercial social networking websites and chat rooms through which personal information about child users of such websites may be accessed by child predators; and

(2) establish a website to serve as a resource for information for parents, teachers and school administrators, and others regarding the potential dangers posed by the use of the Internet by children, including information about commercial social networking websites and chat rooms through which personal information about child users of such websites may be accessed by child predators.

(b) Commercial Social Networking Websites- For purposes of the requirements under subsection (a), the terms `commercial social networking website' and `chat room' have the meanings given such terms pursuant to section 254(h)(7)(J) of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 254(h)(7)(J)), as amended by this Act.

Passed the House of Representatives July 26, 2006.

Attest:

Clerk.

 

APRIL’S LAW

In view of the case in California of the “legal website” of self-declared pedophile, there is a proposed April’s Law which would make it illegal to (even clothed) post pictures of children in conjunction with enticement for sexual activity, or to post pictures of minors without parents’ consent. That might be all right. But there is also talk of making it illegal to advocate or entice pedophilia or ephebophilia (or at least the acts thereof), and that would run into First Amendment problems for vagueness. It is definitely constitutionally protected to argue for lowering of the Age of Consent. Here is the site link. It comes with a petition.

More at this link. Or this on blogger.

Internet Safety Act of 2006..

Internet Stopping Adults Facilitating the Exploitation of Today's Youth Act," introduced by Sen. John Kyl (R-AZ), Blogger link here.

 

There is a similar new bill, S 1086, The Cyber Safety for Kids Act of 2007, S. 1086, was introduced on April 11, 2007 by Senator Max Baucus (D-MT), in the 110th Congress. There is more information here on blogger (follow all links, from Jan 18 2008).

 

Note: Many bills introduced into Congress die in that 2-year session and get reintroduced with a new number, often with provisions repackaged or rewritten, in the House and/or Senate in the next Congress. This page does not show all of that. I am developing a Wordpress blog (link right above) to address this. Eventually this page may be replaced with that Wordpress blog.

 

PROTECT Act (Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today, USC 2252A, passed in 2003, upheld by the Supreme Court on May 19, 2008; go to this link and look for “2252A”.

Go to COPA history

Go to COPA strike page

Return to home page